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  Plastics Engineering

Plastic Testing Methods - Tensile Testing of Plastics
 

Scope:
Tensile tests measure the force required to break a specimen and the extent to which the specimen stretches or elongates to that breaking point. Tensile tests produce a stress-strain diagram, which is used to determine tensile modulus. The data is often used to specify a material, to design parts to withstand application force and as a quality control check of materials. Since the physical properties of many materials (especially thermoplastics) can vary depending on ambient temperature, it is sometimes appropriate to test materials at temperatures that simulate the intended end use environment.

Test Procedure:
Specimens are placed in the grips of the Instron at a specified grip separation and pulled until failure. For ASTM D638 the test speed is determined by the material specification. For ISO 527 the test speed is typically 5 or 50mm/min for measuring strength and elongation and 1mm/min for measuring modulus. An extensometer is used to determine elongation and tensile modulus.

Elevated or Reduced Temperature Test Procedure:
A thermal chamber is installed on the Instron universal test machine. The chamber is designed to allow the test mounts from the base and crosshead of the Instron to pass through the top and bottom of the chamber. Standard test fixtures are installed inside the chamber, and testing is conducted inside the controlled thermal environment the same as it would be at ambient temperature. The chamber has internal electric heaters for elevated temperatures and uses external carbon dioxide gas as a coolant for reduced temperatures. The size of the chamber places a limitation on the maximum elongation that can be reached, and extensometers are generally limited to no more than 200° C.

Specimen Size:
The most common specimen for ASTM D638 is a Type I tensile bar. The most common specimen for ISO 527 is the ISO 3167 Type 1A multipurpose specimen. ASTM D882 uses strips cut from thin sheet or film.

Data:
The following calculations can be made from tensile test results:
1. tensile strength (at yield and at break)
2. tensile modulus
3. strain
4. elongation and percent elongation at yield
5. elongation and percent elongation at break
 

  1. Tensile Testing of Thin Plastic Sheeting

  2. Tensile Testing of Plastics using Microtensile Specimens
     

Plastic Testing Methods :

  1. Ash Content ASTM D5630, D2584, ISO 3451

  2. ASTM Sample Preparation - Machining, Molding, Conditioning ASTM D3641

  3. Barcol Hardness ASTM D2583

  4. Brookfield Viscosity (Relative Viscosity of Polyamides) ASTM D789, D4878

  5. Bulk Density ASTM D1895B

  6. Capillary Rheometry - Shear Sweep ASTM D3835, ISO 11443

  7. Capillary Rheometry - Thermal Stability ASTM D3853, ISO 11443

  8. Carbon Black Content ASTM D1603

  9. Charpy Impact ISO-179

  10. Chemical Compatibility ASTM D543, ISO 4599, UL

  11. Chip Resistance of Coatings ASTM D3170, SAE J400

  12. CIE Lab (Color Analysis) ASTM D6290, E1347, E308

  13. Coefficient Of Friction ASTM D1894

  14. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion ASTM E831, D696, ISO 11359

  15. Cold Bend UL 1581-580

  16. Color Analysis ASTM D6290, E1347, E308

  17. Compression Set ASTM D395

  18. Compression Test ASTM D695, ISO 604

  19. Deflection Temperature Under Load (HDT) ASTM D648 and ISO 75

  20. Density/Specific Gravity ASTM D792, ISO 1183

  21. Dielectric Constant/Dissipation Factor ASTM D150, IEC 60250

  22. Dielectric Strength ASTM D149, IEC 60243

  23. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) ASTM D3417, D3418, E1356, ISO 11357

  24. Dimensional Stability ASTM D1204

  25. Durometer Hardness (Shore) ASTM D2240

  26. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) ASTM D4065, D4440, D5279

  27. Dynatup Impact (Instrumented Impact) ASTM D3763, ISO 6603, 7765

  28. Electron Microscopy - SEM

  29. Elmendorf Tear ASTM D1922

  30. Extractions FDA, ASTM D4754

  31. Falling Dart Impact (Film) ASTM D1709, ISO 7765-1

  32. Falling Dart Impact (Gardner) ASTM D4226, D5420, D5628

  33. Flammability UL, ASTM D635, ISO 3795, 49CFR-571-302

  34. Flexural Test ASTM D790 and ISO 178

  35. Fogging SAE J1756, ISO 6452, DIN 75201

  36. Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR) ASTM E1252

  37. Gardner Impact ASTM D4226, D5420, D5628

  38. Gloss ASTM D523, D2457

  39. Gravelometer ASTM D3170, SAE J400

  40. Haze and Transmittance ASTM D1003

  41. High Speed Puncture(Dynatup) ASTM D3763, ISO 6603, 7765

  42. Hunter Lab (Color Analysis) ASTM D6290, E1347, E308

  43. Index of Refraction ASTM D542

  44. Inherent Viscosity ASTM D4603

  45. Intrinsic Viscosity ASTM D2857

  46. Instrumented Impact (Dynatup) ASTM D3763, ISO 6603, 7765

  47. Instrumented Puncture (Dynatup) ASTM D3763, ISO 6603, 7765

  48. ISO Multipurpose Test Specimen ISO 3167

  49. ISO Sample Preparation - Machining, Molding, Conditioning ISO 294 / 2818 / 3167

  50. Izod Impact (Notched) ASTM D256, ISO 180

  51. Izod Impact (Unnotched) ASTM D4812, ISO 180

  52. Lap Shear ASTM D3163, D5868

  53. Melt Flow Index ASTM D1238, D3364, ISO 1133

  54. Melt Viscosity GE

  55. Moisture Content by Karl Fischer ASTM D789

  56. Mold Shrinkage ASTM D955, ISO 2577

  57. Multiaxial Impact (Dynatup) ASTM D3763, ISO 6603, 7765

  58. Notched Izod Impact ASTM D256, ISO 180

  59. Oven Aging ASTM, UL

  60. Oxygen Index ASTM D2863

  61. Peel Test ASTM D903, D1876, D3167

  62. Poisson's Ratio ASTM D638, ISO 527

  63. Polycarbonate Compatibility EIA 564-1992

  64. Propagation Tear Resistance of Plastic Film ASTM D1922

  65. Puncture Test FTMS 101C - Method 2065

  66. QUV Accelerated Weathering - ASTM D4329, D4587, ISO 4892, SAE J2020

  67. Refractive Index ASTM D542

  68. Relative Viscosity ASTM D2857

  69. Relative Viscosity of Polyamides (Brookfield Viscosity ) ASTM D789, D4878

  70. Rockwell Hardness ASTM D785, ISO 2039

  71. Sample Preparation - Machining, Molding, Conditioning

  72. Scanning Electron Microscopy - SEM

  73. Shear Test ASTM D732

  74. Shore Hardness (Durometer) ASTM D2240

  75. Short Beam Shear ASTM D2344

  76. Specific Gravity/Density ASTM D792, D1045, ISO 1183

  77. Specular Gloss ASTM D523, D2457

  78. Surface Resistivity ASTM D257, IEC60093

  79. Taber Abrasion ASTM D1044, D3389, D4060

  80. Tear Resistance ASTM D1004

  81. Tensile Impact ASTM D1822

  82. Tensile Set - Rubber - ASTM D412

  83. Tensile Test Plastics - ASTM D638, ISO 527

  84. Tensile Test Plastics - Thin Sheet ASTM D882

  85. Tensile Test Plastics - Microtensile ASTM D1708

  86. Tensile Test Rubber - ASTM D412

  87. Extensometers

  88. Video Extensometers

  89. Thermal Indexing UL 746B

  90. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) ASTM E1131, ISO 11358

  91. UL Thermal Indexing UL 746B

  92. Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/VIS) ASTM D1003

  93. Unnotched Izod Impact ASTM D4812, ISO 180

  94. V-Notch Shear ASTM D5379

  95. Vicat Softening Point ASTM D1525, and ISO 306

  96. Void Content ASTM D2734

  97. Volume Resistivity ASTM D257, IEC 60093

  98. Water Absorption - 24 Hour ASTM D570

  99. Water Absorption - Equilibrium ASTM D570

  100. Water Vapor Transmission ASTM E96

  101. Weathering - QUV ASTM D4329, D4587, ISO 4892, SAE J2020

  102. Weathering - Xenon Arc (Weather-Ometer®) ASTM D2565, D4459, G155, SAE J1885, J1960

  103. Weight Gain/Loss Studies ASTM D471

  104. Xenon Arc Accelerated Weathering (Weather-Ometer®) ASTM D2565, D4459,

  105. G155, SAE J1885, J1960

  106. Yellowness Index (YI) ASTM E313

 

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